Internal documents reveal numerous acknowledgments
of the addictiveness of smoking tobacco

ST. PAUL, Minn. (AP) - Decades of tobacco industry internal documents reveal numerous acknowledgments of the addictiveness of smoking - the habit that one memo said gives the companies a need for ``a larger bag to carry the money.''

The documents, released for Minnesota's lawsuit against the industry, show cigarette makers researching the health effects of smoking and studying how to increase the nicotine kick for smokers.

But the state introduced dozens of memos and research documents generated by the tobacco companies, part of the library of millions of pages of documents the state amassed for the trial.

The state and Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Minnesota seek reimbursement of $1.77 billion for Medicaid money spent treating smoking-related illnesses, plus perhaps billions more in punitive damages.

In 1972, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co. researcher Claude Teague wrote a research planning memo in which he discussed nicotine as a potent drug with a variety of physiological effects.
``Happily for the tobacco industry, nicotine is both habituating and unique in its variety of physiological actions,'' he wrote.

By 1978, Brown & Williamson Tobacco Co. was talking about the addictive nature of tobacco.
``Very few consumers are aware of the effects of nicotine, i.e., its addictive nature and that nicotine is a poison,'' said a B memo signed H.D. Steele.

A 1983 B memo outlined ideas for research projects, including the relationship of nicotine levels to brand-switching by smokers.
``Nicotine is the addicting agent in cigarettes,'' researcher A.J. Mellman wrote.

``Other `drugs' such as marijuana, amphetamines and alcohol are slower and may be mood dependent,'' Greig said. He noted that smokers of low-tar cigarettes were compensating by smoking more. ``Where do we go from here? One obvious route is to give people more nicotine as tar is reduced.''

He quoted Oscar Wilde's 1891 novel, ``The Picture of Dorian Gray'': ``A cigarette is the perfect type of a perfect pleasure. It is exquisite and it leaves one unsatisfied. What more can one want.''

Greig then wrote: ``Let us provide the exquisiteness, and hope that they, our consumers, continue to remain unsatisfied. All we would want then is a larger bag to carry the money to the bank.''

Tobacco researchers appeared to acknowledge the link between smoking and lung cancer as early as 1958, as detailed in this memo after British-American Tobacco Co. sent three scientists to the United States and Canada to examine industry research.

``With one exception, the individuals whom we met believed that smoking causes lung cancer if by `causation' we mean any chain of events which leads finally to lung cancer and which involves smoking as an indispensable link,'' the researchers reported.

A BAT Co. memo in 1962 described the company's own studies of the effects of nicotine on the body. ``We now possess a knowledge of the effects of nicotine far more extensive than exists in published scientific literature,'' a company researcher wrote.

While many of the documents refer to the addictive quality of nicotine, heads of seven tobacco companies testified under oath before Congress in 1994 that they believed nicotine was not addictive.

On Thursday, several company executives went before a congressional committee and admitted that nicotine is addictive.
The admission came as tobacco executives argued on behalf of a $368.5 billion settlement they negotiated in June to end the individual state lawsuits.

Back to station

random links transporting dazed and confused free range arachnids to insane asylums since 1995

Ronald Gascon anything she wants known to smoke time to change the game field tommy chong risk war on drugs marijuana mary jane Gascon for president medicaid ruby ridge waco admits to smoking ganja control phoenix nadar tactile pipes seed cultivation prohibition Proudhon paradox of voting green legalization debates who to vote for issues for real people election chest monopoly scribble vegas poke Jennifer Aniston Capitalism Palin gemini whales cancer homeless muggle naked nude extra meat seven mission impossible Subway what quantum leap Colorado mercury oregon star trek styx fling admitted to smoking marijuana traylor howard Lexa Diog Berry Mars SUNY nazism avatar weeds Kate Jackson multilingual leader ventura endtimes monk rainbow farm she wants when Shields Marijuana Wizards waterfalls cancer why Goldie Hawn Carrie Gascon for president medicaid ruby ridge waco elephants